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A Guide to the Amphibians
and Reptiles of California


Clouded Salamander - Aneides ferreus

Cope, 1869
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Clouded Salamander California Range Map
Range in California: Red

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Clouded Salamander Clouded Salamander Clouded Salamander
Sub-adult, Del Norte County, north of Rowdy Creek.
Clouded Salamander Clouded Salamander Clouded Salamander
Adult, northern Del Norte County, light variation. © Alan Barron Adult, northern Del Norte County, dark variation. © Alan Barron
Juvenile, northern Del Norte County
© Alan Barron
Clouded Salamander Clouded Salamander Clouded Salamander
Adult, northern Del Norte County
© 2005 William Flaxington
Adult with gray-green coloring, north of Smith River, Del Norte County © Alan Barron
Clouded Salamander Clouded Salamander  
Underside of juvenile, northern Del Norte County © Alan Barron Toe tips are squared-off. Compare with the more rounded toe tips of Aneides flavipunctatus, the Black Salamander.

 
Clouded Salamanders From Oregon
Clouded Salamander Clouded Salamander Clouded Salamander
Adult, Linn County, Oregon
Clouded Salamander Clouded Salamander Clouded Salamander
Sub-adult, Lane County, Oregon

Juvenile, Lane County, Oregon
Habitat
Clouded Salamander Habitat Clouded Salamander Habitat Clouded Salamander Habitat
Habitat, clearcut north of Rowdy Creek, Del Norte County Smith River, Del Norte County Habitat, Del Norte County

More pictures of this salamander and its natural habitat in Oregon are available on our Northwest Herps page.


Short Video
  Clouded Salamander  
  A small Clouded Salamander is discovered under some loose bark in the woods.  
Description

Size
Adults measure 1 4/5 - 3 inches long (4.6 - 7.6 cm) from snout to vent, 3 - 5 inches (7.5 -13 cm) total length.
Appearance
A medium-sized plethodontid salamander which breathes through thin moist skin instead of lungs. Slim, long-legged, adapted for climbing with long squared-off toes and rounded prehensile tail. Usually 16 costal grooves and two nasolabial grooves. Males have broader, more triangular heads than females. Dark brown, to pale gray ground color, clouded with greenish gray, pale gold, or reddish blotches scattered with brassy flecks. Young have a copper or brassy dorsal stripe.
Morphologically, very similar to Aneides vagrans.
Behavior and Natural History
A member of family Plethodontidae, the Plethodontid or Lungless Salamanders.
Lungless Salamanders breathe through their skin which requires them to live in damp environments on land and to move about on the ground only during times of high humidity. (In California, they do not inhabit streams or bodies of water, but they are capable of surviving for some time if they fall into water.)
Lungless salamanders are distinguished by their naso-labial grooves, which are vertical slits between the nostrils and upper lip that are lined with glands used in chemoreception. All California Lungless Salamanders lay eggs in moist places on land. The young hatch from the egg directly into a tiny terrestrial salamander with the same body form as an adult. (They do not hatch in the water and begin their lives as tiny swimming larvae breathing through gills, as occurs with other types of salamanders.)One of the most arboreal salamanders in California, found up to 40 m. above ground. Often forages from beneath bark or logs, sitting still and waiting for prey to come close.

Males appear to be aggressive and territorial, fighting with other males, and using chemical signals from fecal pellets to mark their territorial boundaries.

Defense tactics include crawling away quickly, remaining motionless, raising up on the legs and waving the tail, and making fast jerky motions, then remaining still.
Diet
A generalist feeder, consuming a variety of small invertebrates, including sowbugs, ants, termites, mites spiders, centipedes, and millipedes. Juveniles eat small prey items at first, with the size of prey increasing as the juveniles grow larger.
Reproduction and Young
Reproduction is terrestrial. Males mature during their second year, females first reproduce during their third year. Breeding males have a well-developed mental gland. In late June and July, females lay a clutch of 9 - 17 eggs in moist places on land, including decomposing logs, and possbly in the forest canopy (where brood sites of A. vagrans have been found.) Adults may brood the eggs - clutches have been found with a female attending them, with a male and female attending them, and with no adults in attendance.

Young develop completely in the egg and hatch fully formed in late August or September. Juveniles prefer bark litter to rock and leaf litter.
Range
In California, Clouded Salamanders occur only in Del Norte County and northwest Siskiyou County north of
"near the junctions of Hurdygurdy Creek and Goose Creek with the South Fork of the Smith River near the coast, and north of the junction of the Salmon and Klamath rivers further inland."  (Staub and Wake, Lannoo, 2005.)

The species ranges north of California along the Oregon coast and the Cascade Mountains to the Columbia River between Washington and Oregon..
Habitat
Occurs in wet coastal forests of Douglas fir, cedar, alder, and redwood, often at the borders of clearings. Prefers wetter, less dense stands of forest to dry dense stands. Shelters under bark of standing or fallen dead trees, in rotten logs, under loose bark on the ground, under rocks, in crevices in cliffs, and in road cuts and talus. Prefers decaying Douglas fir logs over other types of wood. Often abundant in recently burned or logged areas having numerous stumps and large amounts of woody debris, and in areas where rock faces or talus provide deep cracks. Tends to shelter under rocks or on rocky slopes more than A. vagrans. It is possible that A. ferreus occupy forest canopy habitat similar to A. vagrans.

In northwestern California, it appears that A. ferreus is associated with decaying logs and rocky areas, while A. vagrans almost exclusively prefers decaying logs. Where this species occurs with A. flavipuncatus, it is found in cooler wetter regions than A. flavipunctatus.
From near sea level to 5,400 ft. (1,700 m.)
Taxonomic Notes
Based on biochemical analysis, Aneides ferreus was split into two species - A. vagrans and A. ferreus, which are similar in appearance and behavior. Old sources show the range of A. ferreus to continue all the way south to northwest Sonoma County, but all former A. ferreus south of extreme northwest Del Norte County in California, and on Vancouver Island, are A. vagrans.
Conservation
Listed as protected in Oregon due to its occurance in highest densites in old growth forests. Populations are assumed to have been lost due to forestry management practices that don't allow the formation of older trees which creates drier forests.
Taxonomy
Family Plethodontidae Lungless Salamanders Gray, 1850
Genus Aneides Climbing Salamanders Baird, 1849
Species


ferreus Clouded Salamander Cope, 1869
Original Description
Cope, 1869 - Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Vol. 21, p. 109

from Original Description Citations for the Reptiles and Amphibians of North America © Ellin Beltz

Meaning of the Scientific Name
Aneides: Greek - lacking form or shape
ferreus: Latin - iron colored; referring to dorsal mottling, clouded color phase.

from Scientific and Common Names of the Reptiles and Amphibians of North America - Explained © Ellin Beltz

Alternate Names
Populations in California south of extreme northwest Del Norte County that were previously labelled as A. ferreus are now known to be a separate species, Aneides vagrans - Wandering Salamander.

Related or Similar California Salamanders
Speckled Black Salamander
Santa Cruz Black Salamander
Arboreal Salamander
Wandering Salamander

More Information and References
California Department of Fish and Wildlife

AmphibiaWeb

Stebbins, Robert C., and McGinnis, Samuel M.  Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of California: Revised Edition (California Natural History Guides) University of California Press, 2012.

Stebbins, Robert C. California Amphibians and Reptiles. The University of California Press, 1972.

Stebbins, Robert C. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. 3rd Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003.

Behler, John L., and F. Wayne King. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Powell, Robert., Joseph T. Collins, and Errol D. Hooper Jr. A Key to Amphibians and Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. The University Press of Kansas, 1998.

Bartlett, R. D. & Patricia P. Bartlett. Guide and Reference to the Amphibians of Western North America (North of Mexico) and Hawaii. University Press of Florida, 2009.

Bishop, Sherman C. Handbook of Salamanders. Cornell University Press, 1943.

Lannoo, Michael (Editor). Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species. University of California Press, June 2005.

Petranka, James W. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution, 1998.


Corkran, Charlotte & Chris Thoms. Amphibians of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. Lone Pine Publishing, 1996.

Jones, Lawrence L. C. , William P. Leonard, Deanna H. Olson, editors. Amphibians of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle Audubon Society, 2005.

Leonard et. al. Amphibians of Washington and Oregon. Seattle Audubon Society, 1993.

Nussbaum, R. A., E. D. Brodie Jr., and R. M. Storm. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. Moscow, Idaho: University Press of Idaho, 1983.


Conservation Status

The following status listings come from the Special Animals List and the Endangered and Threatened Animals List which are published by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife.


This salamander is not included on the Special Animals List, meaning there are no significant conservation concerns for it in California according to the California Department of Fish and Game.



Organization
Status Listing
U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) None
California Endangered Species Act (CESA) None
California Department of Fish and Wildlife None
Bureau of Land Management None
USDA Forest Service None
 

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