CaliforniaHerps.com

A Guide to the Amphibians
and Reptiles of California


Woodland Alligator Lizard - Elgaria multicarinata webbii

(Baird, 1859 “1858”)

(San Diego Alligator Lizard)
Click on a picture for a larger view



Southern Alligator Lizards Caifornia Range Map
Range in California: Blue and adjacent Gray

Click the map for a guide
to the other subspecies



observation link





San Diego Alligator Lizard
Adult, 6,200 ft., San Bernardino Mountains, San Bernardino County
San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard
San Diego Alligator Lizard
Adult with regenerated tail, San Gabriel Mountains, Los Angeles County Adult, Riverside County
San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard
Adult with original tail, Kern County
Underside of Adult, Kern County
(Dark markings run through the
middle of the scales.)
Underside of Adult, Kern County
(Dark markings run through the
middle of the scales.)
San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard Granite Spiny Lizards
Adult with partly regenerated tail, Tehachapi Mountains, Kern County Adult eating a beetle, Los Angeles County © Huck Triggs
San Diego Alligator Lizard lizard with ticks San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard
Adult, 6,200 ft., San Bernardino Mountains, San Bernardino County Adult from the Mojave Desert near Helendale, San Bernardino County, about 30 miles north of the San Bernardino mountains. San Diego Alligator Lizards such as this one have spread along riparian areas next to the Mohave River where it flows out of the mountains. This one found itself a niche in a well-irrigated golf course community not far from the river. ©  JP Benson Adult with partly regenerated tail,
Orange County © K. S. Swigart
This lizard was found in the eastern San Bernardino Mountains at 8,000 ft. elevation. © Dave Goodward
San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard
Adult with regenerated tail, Santa Catalina Island  © Nathan Smith Adult, Santa Catalina Island 
© Nathan Smith
Adult, Santa Catalina Island 
© Nathan Smith
Adult, Santa Catalina Island 
© Nathan Smith
California Alligator Lizard California Alligator Lizard California Alligator Lizard California Alligator Lizard
Sub-adult with regenerated tail, Santa Cruz Island, Santa Barbara County Adult from East Anacapa Island,
Santa Barbara County. © Phil Schmidt.
Adult, San Luis Obispo County
California Alligator Lizard California Alligator Lizard California Alligator Lizard California Alligator Lizard
This unusually-colored lizard found on a San Luis Obispo County beach is probaby anerythristic, or lacking any red pigment.
© Ryan Sikola
Adult, Santa Barbara County
© Francesca Heras
California Alligator Lizard
Adult, photographed lying still at the edge of a trail in San Luis Obispo County © Joanne Aasen

Alligator lizards sometimes tuck their legs along the sides of their body when they move or when they remain still. Sometimes people think they are looking at a snake when they don't see the legs sticking out.
San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard
The Woodland Alligator Lizard is the longest subspecies of Southern Alligator Lizard, especially when an adult has a complete tail which has never broken off: Steve Haimwertz found this 15 inch lizard in his backyard in Los Angeles County.
© Steve Haimwertz.
Gary Grantham sent in this picture of a very long lizard that was found in San Diego County. It measures just over 16 inches in length including the tail, which is the maximum length listed for this lizard.
© Gary Grantham
San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard
Alligator lizards are fairly common in suburban yards and gardens, especially in Southern California, and occasionally they enter garages and even houses as they wander around looking for food or water or mates, but this is the first one I've seen that was able to climb up a kitchen counter and fall into a sink.
© Ketarah Shaffer
This large adult was found on a window screen in Los Angeles County.
© Grace Macy
This adult was found climbing on a security door in Orange County.
© Mark Flores
6-year-old lizard wrangler Enzo Forte holds a sub-adult alligator lizard that he found trying to kill and eat a potato bug in Ventura County. The lizard continued even after being picked up and struggled with the bug for about an hour before finally severing the bug's head.
© Domiane Forte.

San Diego Alligator Lizard eye San Diego Alligator Lizard head Great Basin Collared Lizard  
The eye of this species is light, compared to the northern alligator lizard. Adult males have a large triangular head. All Western Alligator Lizards, genus Elgaria, have large rectangular keeled scales on the back that are reinforced with bone.
(Elgaria multicarinata multicarinata is shown here).
 
       
Parasites
lizard with ticks lizard with ticks lizard with ticks  
It is common to find blood-engorged ticks attached to alligator lizards, especially in and around the ear openings, as you can see on the California Alligator Lizard on the left, on the Shasta Alligator Lizard in the middle, and on the San Francisco Alligator Lizard on the right.
 
       
The Tail Breaks Off as a Defense Mechanism but it Can Grow Back.
Many Woodland Alligator Lizards are found without a tail or with a tail that is in the process of growing back. This sometimes confuses people trying to identify them.
The tail can be intentionally detached by a lizard (caudal autotomy) which can distract a predator because the tail will continue wiggling, drawing the predator's attention to it while the lizard escapes. It can also be broken off by accident, especially when someone tries to pick up a frightened lizard that is thrashing its tail around. It will grow back (regenerate) but the new tail typically looks smoother and shorter and does not taper to a thin tip as an original tail does.

San Diego Alligator Lizard
San Diego Alligator Lizard
lizard with ticks lizard with ticks
Adult San Bernardino County,
missing most of tail
Adult missing most of its tail,
San Diego County
Adult with a regenerated tail, San Bernardino County © Michael M. Phillips
San Diego Alligator Lizard Alligator Lizard tail San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard
Adult with regenerated tail,
Los Angeles County © Mike Ryan
This short video shows how an alligator lizard's tail thrashes around after it has been dropped to distract a predator. The tail moved for about 4-5 minutes, which has been cut down here to about a minute, showing several different speeds until it is just barely moving. Adult, Los Angeles County. This lizard apparently suffered an injury to its tail (which was partly regenerated already), but the tail did not break off at the point of injury. The injury healed irregularly as you can see here.
       
Forked Tails
Sometimes when the tail of a Southern Alligator Lizard is broken off, two tails grow back from the break point.
San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard  
Adult, Placer County, with  a forked regenerated tail. © Sara Walhovd Adult, Los Angeles County with a large forked tail. © Joshua Nyhus  
       
Juveniles
Hatchlings lack the back markings and large scales that are characteristic of alligator lizards and for that they are often mistaken for small skinks, such as the Little Brown Skinks (Ground Skinks) that are common in some places in eastern North America. However, there are no tiny plain-backed native skinks in California.

San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard
Hatchling in August, San Diego County © Barry A. Rader Hatchling in July, San Diego County © Jay Keller

San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard
Hatchling in September, Orange County. © Paul Hanson
Juvenile, San Diego County
© Sandra Wagner
Juvenile, Los Angeles County.
© Anne Vanoppen
Juvenile, Laguna Mountains, San Diego County, © Stuart Young
       
Interesting Pigments and Patterns
San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard
Melanistic adult male, coastal Los Angeles County. © Jean Taves Young adult with high-contrast pattern, coastal Los Angeles County
© Don Huffman
Young adult with few markings, coastal Los Angeles County
© Don Huffman
San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard
This melanistic adult alligator lizard from Orange County has a lot of black pigment, but
does not compeltely lack other pigments since the feet are still yellow. © Stacy Schenkel
A juvenile with very little pattern from San Diego County. © Richard Cazares
San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard
An amelanistic lizard observed in Los Angeles County with a beautiful long tail. At about 10 inches in length, including the very long tail, it may still be a juvenile.
© Amy Jaecker-Jones
San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard  
An almost patternless adult from Riverside County © Adam Helbert
This adult was found in a backyard in Huntington Beach in Orange County. It appears to be Anerythristic - missing the red or orange pigment that would give it the red or brown coloring typical of the species.  
   
Breeding Behavior
San Diego Alligator Lizards San Diego Alligator Lizards San Diego Alligator Lizards San Diego Alligator Lizards
Liz Kubalek © found these courting lizards in this postion one March evening in San Diego County. They were still there the next morning, but gone by the afternoon.
A pair courting in March,
San Bernardino County
© Joy Lutz-Mizar
A pair courting in April,
San Bernardino County
© Aaron Fitzsimmons
This mating pair was found in
Los Angeles County.
© Steve Haimwertz.
San Diego Alligator Lizards San Diego Alligator Lizards San Diego Alligator Lizards San Diego Alligator Lizards
Tess Prenger © found these mating lizards in her yard on February 8th in San Diego County. One March morning, Carola Bundy © photographed these two males biting onto the head of a female on her porch in Los Angeles County. By the afternoon, the smaller lizard on the left was gone and the other two had moved to the driveway. Bret Gross © found this frisky courting pair in his
Orange County yard in early March.
San Diego Alligator Lizards San Diego Alligator Lizards San Diego Alligator Lizards San Diego Alligator Lizards
This amorous pair was found inside a dry children's wading pool in a Los Angeles County suburban backyard in mid April.
© Dana Zoulin
A pair found mating in an Orange County yard in late March. © Marissa Russell Courting male and female in early April, San Diego County © Dan Boyd
San Diego Alligator Lizards San Diego Alligator Lizards San Diego Alligator Lizards San Diego Alligator Lizards
Two adult males courting the same female on an Orange County sidewalk in mid April. This pair was found mating in a garage in San Diego County in early April.
© Jason Rosenberg
   
Predators
San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard
Mark McCormick © shot this series of a Woodland Alligator Lizard biting onto the neck of a lizard-eating California Striped Racer in San Bernardino County. After the lizard finally let go, the snake quickly raced up a steep 15 foot high cliff up into some branches.

A Ventura County Woodland Alligator Lizard bites onto the nose of a predatory California Striped Racer, leaving it unable to strike. Eventually the lizard released its grip and the two ran in opposite directions. © Melissa Wantz
  Crow vs. San Diego Alligator Lizard Crow vs. San Diego Alligator Lizard  
Crow vs. San Diego Alligator Lizard Crow vs. San Diego Alligator Lizard Crow vs. San Diego Alligator Lizard San Diego Alligator Lizard
Sean Kelly © shot this amazing series of pictures that show a fearless Woodland Alligator Lizard successfully defending itself from an attacking American Crow.

Red Coachwhip eating San Diego Alligator Lizard Red Coachwhip eating San Diego Alligator Lizard california kingsnake california kingsnake
A Red Coachwhip eating a Woodland Alligator Lizard. © Samantha Zahringer.

Samantha Zahringer watched this coachwhip eat the lizard by her back door. Her kids saw the snake attack the lizard. It raised its head and neck off the ground, swayed for a moment, then struck quickly. Two other lizards nearby froze while the snake swallowed its meal, then they ran away quickly.
This striped California Kingsnake is eating a Woodland Alligator Lizard in San Diego County. © Liz Samperi
San Diego Alligator Lizard Red Coachwhip eating San Diego Alligator Lizard Red Coachwhip eating San Diego Alligator Lizard Red Coachwhip eating San Diego Alligator Lizard
Mindy Langfus sent me a link to her YouTube video showing a Woodland Alligator Lizard biting onto the head of a predatory California Striped Racer in a Los Angeles County park, both of them spinning around trying to get the other one to let go. This Woodland Alligator Lizard was found biting the head of a California Striped Racer on a driveway in Riverside County. My guess is that the snake tried to eat the lizard but the lizard defended itself by biting onto the snake's head. The outcome is unknown.
       
Habitat
San Diego Alligator Lizard Habitat San Diego Alligator Lizard Habitat San Diego Alligator Lizard Habitat San Diego Alligator Lizard Habitat
Habitat, 6,200 ft.
San Bernardino County
Habitat, coastal Riverside County Creekside habitat, 1,450 ft., Kern County Habitat, riparian canyon,
Los Angeles County
San Diego Alligator Lizard Habitat San Diego Alligator Lizard Habitat San Diego Alligator Lizard Habitat San Diego Alligator Lizard Habitat
Habitat, San Gabriel Mountains,
Los Angeles County
Habitat, Tehachapi Mountains,
Kern County
Habitat, San Diego County coastal scrub Habitat, San Gabriel Mountains,
Los Angeles County
San Diego Alligator Lizard Habitat California Alligator Lizard Habitat Island Fence Lizard Habitat  
Habitat, coastal San Diego County.
(This location was bulldozed and developed a few years later.)
Grassland habitat,
San Luis Obispo County
Habitat, Santa Cruz Island,
Santa Barbara County
 
       
Short Videos
San Diego Alligator Lizard Alligator Lizard tail    
A large adult Woodland Alligator lizard with a full tail sticks out his tongue in Kern County. Here you can see how an alligator lizard can look a lot like a snake when it crawls through the grass. This video shows how an alligator lizard's tail thrashes around after it has been dropped to distract a predator. The tail moved for about 4-5 minutes, which has been cut down here to about a minute, showing several different speeds until it is just barely moving.    
     
Description
 
Size
E. multicarinata ranges in size from 2 7/8 - 7 inches in snout to vent length (7.3 - 17.8 cm) (Stebbins) and up to aprox.16 inches (38.1 cm) in total length, including the tail. E. m. webbii is the largest subspecies of Southern Alligator Lizard.

Appearance
Alligator lizards, genus Elgaria, are members of the family Anguidae, a family of lizards found in the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa.
Large bony scales, a large head on an elongated body and powerful jaws probably give the lizards their common name.
They are characterized by a slim body with short limbs and long tail.
The tail can reach twice the length of its body if it has never been broken off and regenerated.

Scales are keeled on the back, sides, and legs, with 14 rows of scales across the back at the middle of the body.
The scales of this subspecies are more heavily keeled than with other subspecies, with the temporal scales also keeled.

A band of small granular scales separates the larger bone-reinforced scales on the back and on the belly, creating a fold along each side. These folds allow the body to expand to hold food, eggs, or live young. The fold contracts when the extra capacity is not needed.

The head of a male is broader than a female's with a more triangular shape.
Usually there are dark lines running lengthwise on the underside which run through the middle of the scales. (Compare with the underside lines on Elgaria coerulea, which run between the scales, along their edges.)
Color and Pattern
Color is brown, grey, or yellowish above, sometimes with reddish or orange coloring on the middle of the back.
Usually there are 9 - 13 dark bands on the back, sides, and tail, with adjacent white spots. On some lizards these dark bands are very pronounced, on others they are covered with reddish or yellowish color.

The eyes are light yellow.
(Compare with the darker eyes of a simillar species - the Northern Alligator Lizard -Elgaria coerulea.)
The head is usually mottled with dark color.
Young
Hatchlings are very thin and small, roughly 4 inches long, with smooth shiny skin with a plain tan, light brown, or copper colored back and tail. The sides are darker and sometimes mottled or barred as they are on adults. Juveniles gradually develop the large scales and heavy dark barring found on the back and tails of adults.

Life History and Behavior

Activity
Diurnal, crepuscular, and sometimes nocturnal: active during daylight and twilight, but sometimes active at night during hot weather.
Inactive during cold weather in winter.

Alligator lizards are generally secretive, tending to hide in brush or under rocks, although they are often seen foraging out in the open or on roads in the morning and evening. They are common inhabitants of suburban yards and garages. (I have received many emails asking me to identify alligator lizards found in yards and garages, and inside houses, mostly in Southern California, the Bay Area, and the Sacramento area.)
Movement
Moves with a snake-like undulating motion, often tucking the rear legs up against the side of the body and pulling itself along on its belly with the front feet.
The slightly prehensile tail can be used to wrap around vegetation when climbing.
A good swimmer, sometimes diving into the water to escape by swimming away.
Defense
The tail of an alligator lizard is easily broken off, as it is with many lizards.
The tail will grow back, although generally not as perfectly as the original.
A lizard may detach its tail deliberately as a defensive tactic. When first detached, the tail will writhe around for several minutes, long enough to distract a hungry predator away from the lizard.

Males sometimes also extrude the hemipenes when threatened.

Often when an alligator lizard is observed lying still or basking, it will tuck its legs back toward the body. This is probably a defensive measure to break up the outline of the lizard's body so that a predator can't tell that it's an animal with legs. This might be to give it the appearance of a stick or shadow or something not alive, or it might be to imitate a snake, since many animals are naturally afraid of snakes and will hesitate to approach or attack a snake.

Other defensive tactics used by alligator lizards are smearing the contents of the cloaca on the enemy and biting.
They often bite onto a predatory snake, on the neck or the head, rendering the snake unable to attack.
Samuel M. McGinnis (Stebbins & McGinnis, 2012) reports seeing a juvenile southern alligator lizard bite onto its own tail making itself impossible to be swallowed by a juvenile Alameda Striped Racer, which eventually gave up.
Diet and Feeding
Eats a variety of small invertebrates. Will also eat small lizards and small mammals. Occasionally feed on bird eggs and young birds. (Stebbins)
Breeding

Mating occurs in Spring, most likely from March through May.
Eggs are laid sometime from May to July and they hatch during late summer and early fall.
Young hatch fully-formed.

During the breeding season, a male lizard grabs on to the head of a female with his mouth until she is ready to let him mate with her. They can remain attached this way for many hours, almost oblivious to their surroundings. Besides keeping her from running off to mate with another male, this probably shows her how strong and suitable a mate he is.

Habitat
Grassland, open forest, chaparral. Common in foothill oak woodlands. Commonly found hiding under rocks, logs, boards, trash, other surface cover.

Geographical Range
The subspecies Elgaria multicarinata webbii ranges in California from the border in San Diego County, north, primarily west of the transverse mountain ranges, to an intergrade range at Monterey Bay, and north along the Tehachapi mountains to northern Kern County. Also ranges north on the east side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains through the Owens valley where it is found in some isolated populations at Grant Lake, the Alabama Hills near Independence, Walker pass, and Walker Creek near Olancha. Also found in the Mojave Desert along the Mojave River, and on several of the Channel Islands. (Stebbins 2003)

The species Elgaria multicarinata ranges from southern Washington state mostly west of the Cascades and Sierras, including most of the Channel Islands, into northwestern Baja California, including San Martin and Los Coronados islands, and has been introduced into Las Vegas. (Apparently it is common in casino gardens.)

Full Species Range Map
Elevational Range of this Subspecies
In his 2003 field guide, Stebbins states that the species Elgaria multicarinata occurs from sea level to 5,000 ft. in elevation (1,524 m.) but I've seen them at 6,200 ft. in the San Bernardino Mountains and they have also been found at 7,250 ft. (2,210 m.) on Frazier Mountain in Ventura County.

Notes on Taxonomy
The 2008 SSAR Herpetological Circular No. 37, Crother et al., included the following information about E. multicarinata subspecies:

"A molecular phylogeographic study of Feldman and Spicer (2006, Mol. Ecol. 15: 2201–2222) failed to support currently recognized subspecies boundaries within E. multicarinata (Fitch, 1938, Am. Midl. Nat. 20: 381–424). Haplotypes from the central Coast Ranges of California (formerly multicarinata) are more closely related to those from southern (webbii) rather than northern (multicarinata) California, while haplotypes from the Sierra Nevada (formerly webbii) are more closely related to those from northern (multicarinata) rather than southern (webbii) California. In addition, haplotypes representing E. m. multicariniata and E. m. scincicauda are phylogenetically intermixed, calling their separation into question."

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The 2017 SSAR Herpetological Circular No. 43 Standard Names List follows two studies that don't support the traditional subspecies boundaries within E. multicarinata, changing the common names of the subspecies:

E. m. scincicauda - Oregon Alligator Lizrd is no longer recognized. Lizards formerly recognized as that subspecies become E. m. multicarinata - Forest Alligator Lizard.
E. m. multicarinata - California Alligator Lizard becomes E. m. multicarinata - Forest Alligator Lizard
E. m. webbii - San Diego Alligator Lizard becomes E. m. webbii - Woodland Alligator Lizard

E. multicarinata in the Sierra Nevada mountains, formerly E. m. webbii, become E. m. multicarinata - Forest Alligator Lizard.
E. multicarinata in the central Coast Ranges, formerly E. m. multicarinata, become E. m. webbii - Woodland Alligator Lizard.

The contact zones between the subspecies are in the Monterey Bay area and in Kern County north of the Kern River.


Alternate and Previous Names (Synonyms)

Elgaria multicarinata webbii - San Diego Alligator Lizard (Stebbins 2003, Stebbins & McGinnis 2012)
Gerrhonotus multicarinatus webbii
- San Diego Alligator Lizard (Smith 1946, Stebbins 1966, 1985)
Formerly placed in the genus Gerrhonotus, with the Latin name Gerrhonotus multicarinatus webbii.

Conservation Issues  (Conservation Status)
None
Taxonomy
Family Anguidae Alligator Lizards & Allies Gray, 1825
Genus Elgaria Western Alligator Lizards Gray, 1838
Species multicarinata Southern Alligator Lizard (Blainville, 1835)
Subspecies

webbii Woodland Alligator Lizard (Baird, 1859 “1858”)
Original Description
Elgaria multicarinata - (Blainville, 1835) - Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, Vol. 4, p. 298, pl. 25, fig. 2
Elgaria multicarinata webbii - (Baird, 1858) - Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Vol. 10, p. 255

from Original Description Citations for the Reptiles and Amphibians of North America © Ellin Beltz

Meaning of the Scientific Name
Elgaria - obscure - possibly named for an "Elgar" or a pun on "alligator."
multicarinata
- Latin multi many, and carinata keeled - refers to the keeled scales
webbii - honors Webb, Thomas H.

from Scientific and Common Names of the Reptiles and Amphibians of North America - Explained © Ellin Beltz

Related or Similar California Lizards
E. c. coerulea - San Francisco Alligator Lizard
E. c. palmeri - Sierra Alligator Lizard
E. c. shastensis - Shasta Alligator Lizard
E. c. principis - Northwestern Alligator Lizard
E. m. multicarinata - Forest Alligator Lizard
E. panamintina - Panamint Alligator Lizard

More Information and References
California Department of Fish and Wildlife

Dean H. Leavitt, Angela B. Marion, Bradford D. Hollingsworth, Tod W. Reeder.
Multilocus phylogeny of alligator lizards (Elgaria, Anguidae): Testing mtDNA introgression as the source of discordant molecular phylogenetic hypotheses.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 110 (2017) 104–121.

Chris R. Feldman and Greg S. Spicer.
Comparative phylogeography of woodland reptiles in California: repeated patterns of cladogenesis and population expansion.
Molecular Ecology (February, 2006) 15, pp. 2201–2222

Stebbins, Robert C., and McGinnis, Samuel M.  Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of California: Revised Edition (California Natural History Guides) University of California Press, 2012.

Stebbins, Robert C. California Amphibians and Reptiles. The University of California Press, 1972.

Stebbins, Robert C. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. 3rd Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003.

Behler, John L., and F. Wayne King. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.

Powell, Robert., Joseph T. Collins, and Errol D. Hooper Jr. A Key to Amphibians and Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. The University Press of Kansas, 1998.

Bartlett, R. D. & Patricia P. Bartlett. Guide and Reference to the Turtles and Lizards of Western North America (North of Mexico) and Hawaii. University Press of Florida, 2009.

Jones, Lawrence, Rob Lovich, editors. Lizards of the American Southwest: A Photographic Field Guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, 2009.

Smith, Hobart M. Handbook of Lizards, Lizards of the United States and of Canada. Cornell University Press, 1946.

Conservation Status

The following status listings are copied from the April 2018 Special Animals List and the 2017 Endangered and Threatened Animals List, both of which are published by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife.

If no status is listed here, the animal is not included on either CDFW list. This most likely indicates that there are no serious conservation concerns for the animal. To find out more about an animal's status, you can go to the NatureServe and IUCN websites to check their rankings.

Check here to see the most current complete lists.


This animal is not included on the Special Animals List, which indicates that there are no significant conservation concerns for it in California.


Organization
Status Listing
NatureServe Global Ranking
NatureServe State Ranking
U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) None
California Endangered Species Act (CESA) None
California Department of Fish and Wildlife None
Bureau of Land Management None
USDA Forest Service None
IUCN

 

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